Theme 5

 

 

 

 

 

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Personal Reflection

“Leadership in ME”

A clear vision is one of the most important functions a leader needs to deliver. Every leader should know the fundamental components of vision and how to deliver a distinct vision (Kouzes and Posner, 2009). My vision of leadership is that as a leader not only lead the employees but also involve and encourage them. In addition, leader not only needs to develop his or her own ideas but also need to listen to employees. As a great leader, they need to find what are the advantages of their employees and utilize their strengths, and help them to become a shiny star, meanwhile achieve the goal of the company.

I will discuss the leadership of mine through Six Emotional Leadership Styles. This theory highlights the strengths and weaknesses of six leadership styles, Visionary, Coaching, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting, and Commanding. Furthermore, it explains how each style can influence the emotions of the group members (Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee, 2002).

According to the 10 weeks group interaction, I think The Democratic Leader and The Affiliative Leader style can illustrate my personal leadership styles. Both of them have positive impact on climate. The Democratic Leader style acts to value inputs and commitment via participation, listening to both the bad and the good news. The Affiliative Leader creates people connections and thus harmony within the organization. It is a very collaborative style that focuses on emotional needs over work needs.

My tutor and his classes, also the knowledge cast inspired my understanding of effective leadership. Before the week 1, I always wanted to be a leader, meanwhile, I am not very clearly about how to become a leader and the concepts of leadership are chaotic in my mind. However, after 10 weeks learning, I think I gain a lot about leadership. Such as, the difference between manager and leader, how to become a great manager, leadership skills and different models and theories. In addition, the learning knowledge supports me to have a clear plan of my future career because I have a better understanding of my weakness and strengths base on the 10 weeks.

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The other motive example is Google, Google also inspired my understanding of effective leadership for a long time. When I was an undergraduate student I knew that delivering the vision of the company and allowing the freedom for their employees part of Google’s people-management system. If I become a leader I will also do it for my employees because creative and innovative corporate culture assist the employees flourish. In addition, treating employees well is also important for the developing of the company. Google leadership’s system of supporting the work of employees has driven the increase of innovations, hence, to the fast growth of Google. Furthermore, Google gives the employees with a great environment so that they can focus completely on their work. For example, Google affords many benefits to their employees, such as the “gyms, laundry rooms, massage rooms, haircutting salons, car washes, dry cleaning services, commuting buses equipped with bike racks, leather seats, internet access, and facilities to carry pets onboard (Manimala and Wasdani, 2013,).”

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From the first week till last week, we have a wealth of group discussions and group activities during the classes. We have group works many times through these ten weeks. My colleagues gave me a lot of encouragement and help; they make me a better understanding of my strengths and weakness according to the advices from my group members.

Strength:

  • l  Very concerned about the topic, and making decision quickly
  • l  I can make an effort to choose the best solution, which meets the wishes of all the group members.
  • l  Very skilled and good at marketing, social media and advertising
  • l  Very good at design long-term and short-term action plans

Weakness:

Sometimes, I consider too many factors that led to me hide my real opinions. I think for a good leader too emotional or too much thinking is not good. This requires long time practice to improve.

There are still have some leadership skills I need to developing as the progress through my MBA program although I am good at many skills. The most significant skill I need to develop is social skill. Leaders should be good communicators because they need communicate their team to support them and be excited about a new mission or project (Mindtools, nd). Hence, I should overcome my own personality; constantly exercise myself in the next courses.

 

Reference list:

Goleman, P., Boyatzis,R., and McKee,A. (2002). The New Leaders: Transforming the Art of Leadership: Transforming the Art of Leadership into the Science of Results. United Kingdom: Little,Brown

MindTools. (nd). Six Emotional Leadership Styles. [Online] available at: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/emotional-leadership.htm [29th March 2014]

Manimala,M. and Wasdani,K. (2013). DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP AT GOOGLE: LESSONS FROM THE BILLION-DOLLAR BRAND. [Online] available at http://iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/leadership/distributed-leadership-at-google-lessons-from-the-billion-dollar-brand#.UzjDm9x2XZ4 [20th March 2014]

Kouzes,J. and Posner,B. (2009). To Lead, Create a Shared Vision.[online] available at

http://hbr.org/2009/01/to-lead-create-a-shared-vision/ar/[20th March 2014]

 

 

Theme 4

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Theme 4 – Ethical leadership

Ethical leadership: argument for and against the relevance of the topic to the study of leadership in organisations

Ethical leadership has been defined as doing what is right for the organization, while organizing the self-interests by the organizational leadership for the benefit of all the organizational stakeholders (Ridley, 2007). Ethical leadership is relevant because it leads the organization in fulfilment its objectives, while also caring for the interest of the broader society (Bai and Morris, 2014). However, the definition of what is good or bad can be complicated and contradictory, and the definition of what is good or bad is depend on the conditions and the situations, as well as the social-cultural context (Evans, 1970). Nevertheless, the power that comes with become a leader has the potential of utilized well the organization and its stakeholders, or not good for the others who are not in the position of power (Yueru, 2013).

According to Rubin et al. (2010), ethical behaviour on the part of a leader can improve the effectiveness of both leader and the organization. However, there is an opposing point to ethical leadership as a source of effectiveness for the leader and organization. The argument holds that the leadership should be based on cognition, where the leader should be more focused on the application of his or her own mind for reason, problem solving and decision making, not the ethical standards, which requires the leader to focus on the surface to gain leadership strategies (Vinkhuyzen and Karlsson, 2014).

The argument opposing ethical leadership as a source of leadership and organizational effectiveness holds that the inner cognitive abilities should define effective leaders, not the rules of ethics, which requires the leaders to be informed of the surrounding environment, and attempt to do right according to the environment surrounding them (House, 1996).

I will discuss the statement that ethical behaviour for a leader can be a source of effectiveness for the leader and the organization through Microsoft example. Microsoft is a good example of a corporate organization that has demonstrated ethical leadership, and the effect has been the enormous success of the organization in the technology sector (Shields, 2013). The values of ethical leadership are demonstrated through the fair treatment of the employees and customers (Bergen, 2011). Microsoft has been able to improve the status of its employees to the highest level within the American society, through good salaries and benefits that keep the employees motivated and able to continue highly productive (Bergen, 2011).

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Microsoft treats its diverse workforce consistently; regardless of the differences in gender, race, and origin of disability through give its complete workforce an equal opportunity to exceed. In addition, considering customers, Microsoft has remained among the highly rated companies in the provision of quality products and high quality customer service to its customers (Shields, 2013). Furthermore, Microsoft has remained amongst the top rated organization in issues of corporate social responsibility (CSR), where the organization has been engaged in numerous charitable activities ever year (Bergen, 2011). In addition, financial ethics serves as a major aspect of corporate ethics, which enables the organization to avoid major financial scandal (Ridley, 2007). Microsoft has proven to be an organization with a high level of financial ethics and prudence throughout its history, and no wonder it has usually rated highly in financial performance and profitability (Bergen, 2011).

The path–goal theory of leader effectiveness model is a leadership model theory that applied by Microsoft, to make the organization successful both in leadership and organizational performance (Evans, 1970). The path–goal model requirements that the leader’s behaviour is a necessary condition for the motivation, satisfaction and effective performance of his or her subordinates (House, 1971). For example, Bill Gates has been an ethical leader, whose ethical behaviour has influenced the success of the Microsoft workforce. Since he has always handled all the employees with dignity, respect and equality, while ensure to improve their working environment and make it friendly (Shields, 2013). In this way, he has inspired a generation of capable leaders who have taken over Microsoft leadership after his retirement, and the level of motivation, performance and satisfaction has remained high amongst the workforce throughout Microsoft’s history (Bergen, 2011).

To sum up, ethical leadership is an essential concept for the achievement of the organizational objectives, since it helps to avoid scandals and immoral acts by the leaders that may lead to organizational failure. Furthermore, ethical leadership is an essential management concept, which enhances the performance, satisfaction and motivation of the workforce.

 

References List

Bai, X. and Morris, N. (2014). Leadership and Virtue Ethics. Public Integrity, 16(2),

173-186. Cathcart, E. (2014). Relational work: At the core of leadership. Nursing

Management, 45(3), 44-46.

 

Evans, M. G. (1970). The effects of supervisory behavior on the path-goal

relationship. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 5: 277–298.

House, R. J. (1971). A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness. Administrative

Science Quarterly. 16, 321-328.

 

House, R. J., Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of

Contemporary Business. 3: l–97.

 

House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a

reformulated theory. Leadership Quarterly. 7 (3): 323–352.

 

Bergen, J. (Mar. 18, 2011) ‘Microsoft makes World’s Most Ethical Companies list,

Apple, Google, Facebook don’t’ [Online] avaluable from:

http://www.geek.com/news/microsoft-makes-worlds-most-ethical-companies-list-apple-google-facebook-dont-1329499/ [ 27th March 2014]

 

Ridley, M. (2007). A Practitioner Model for Ethical Leadership. (2007). Academic

Leader, 23(6), 2-8.

 

Rubin,R., Dierdoff, E., Brown, M. (2010) ‘Do Ethical Leaders Get Ahead? Exploring

Ethical Leadership and promotability’ Business Ethics Quaterly 20(2) pp 215-236

 

 

Shields, A. (Feb 16, 2013). ‘Good Business: 10 Companies With Ethical Corporate

Policies’ [Online] available from

http://www.minyanville.com/sectors/consumer/articles/Good-Business253A-Corporations-with-Great-Ethical/2/16/2013/id/48045 [27th March 2014]

 

Vinkhuyzen, O. M., and Karlsson, S. I. (2014). The role of moral leadership for

sustainable production and consumption. Journal Of Cleaner Production, 2-13.

 

Yueru, M. (2013). Linking ethical leadership to employee creativity: knowledge

sharing and self-efficacy as mediators. Social Behavior and Personality: An

International Journal, 41(9), 9-20.

 

Theme 3

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Theme 3 – Managing change

How change models help to define the steps managers use to manage change effectively

Change is the only constant in life, and there is little that people can do to avoid change, both in personal life and within organizations where they work (Shere, 2006). Nevertheless, the difference appears in the manner in which people respond to change, with some being open to the new challenges that change brings although others react to changing through resisting it (Cervone, 2011). However, at the same time that Mullins (2010) shows that there is little the management can do about resistance to change, the fact is that management is the core driver of the changing process within an organization, and thus there is a lot that the management can do to enhance the success of the changing process (Martincic, 2010).

According to Mullins (2010) shows that the management has little it can do about resistance to change, it is apparent that the management cannot force change on the organizational stakeholders such as the employees, considering that change has to begin from within (Shao-His, Ying-Fang and Shao-Wen, 2012). Whenever a change is externally driven, it will result to resistance and where resistance is not obvious, those will destroy the change process opposed to it. The organization may lose its valuable assets in the quitting employees (Phillips, 1983).

 

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Nevertheless, to demonstrate against the statement by Mullins (2010), it is clear that the management can do a lot about resistance to change within an organization. This principle can be demonstrated well by the case “Remaking JC Penney’s Organizational Culture,” where Ullman, who was appointed to the position of the chairman and CEO of JC Penney Corporation in 2004, had an elaborate plan on how he could introduce change to the organization, through making the organization a great work place for the employees (ICMR, 2007). However, he was faced with much resistance, considering that the organization had a culture of rigidity and formal employee relationship cross over the past 100 years (ICMR, 2007). The rigid rules of addressing the managers formally and dressing rigorously in accordance with the organizational dress code had made the environment in the organization tense.

This happened to the inability of the organization to attract new talent or maintain new people, while the employee turnover increased (ICMR, 2007). After Ullman and the newly hired human resource manager, Michael Theilmann started a culture of flexibility that was established through the campaign to have the employees relax the strict rules. The new strategy entailed the employees start addressing the managers informally with their first name. Eventually, the situation in the organization changed, and the organization became a familiar working environment, resulting to high employee productivity and low turnover, while the organization was able to attract new talents (ICMR, 2007).

 

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The managers have an important role to play in directing resistance to change. The Lewin’s Three-Stage Process of Change model is illustrated what managers should do to work out change resistance. According to this model, change introduction has to go though the three process of unfreeze, involving first dismantling the existing organizational cultures that resistance to change (Burnes, 2004). This is followed by introducing a new culture that make the organization to higher performance, a process known as change, and finally solidify the new tradition and culture, which eventually becomes the new identity of the organization, a process known as refreeze (Burnes, 2004). This management role in managing and overcoming resistance to change was illustrated well by the management style of Ullman who became the new chairman and CEO of JC Penney in 2004 (ICMR, 2007).

Ullman applied The Lewin’s Three-Stage Process of Change model, starting with unfreeze phase, where he destroyed the rigid culture of the JC Penney Corporation, through introducing the informal culture of relationship between the employees and the managers.  He followed this with the change phase of the Lewin’s model, where he moulded a new organization culture the way he wants, through making the informal association culture emerge as the ultimate source of strength for the employees and managers. Finally, he took the change process to the third and final stage of refreeze, where a new culture was solidified and became the new identity of JC Penney Corporation. This made it possible to attract for the organization to become a friendly workplace, and eventually it attracted enough talent (ICMR, 2007).

Resistance is an essential strength in the change process, considering that it assists to delay change and gives the introducers of change time to reflect on the benefits and the limitation associated with the change (Dervitsiotis, 1998). In this way, the change process is made continuous, allowing it to put into consideration the diverse interests of all the stakeholders (French, 2013). In conclusion, even though change is disruptive and, therefore, may bring more resistance, the change process can be successful if the managers apply the right way.

 

Reference List

Burnes (2004). ‘Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal’, Journal of Management Studies 41(6), 18-35.

Center for Management Research (ICMR). (2007) ‘Remaking JC Penney’s Organizational Culture’, 1-20.

Cervone (2011). Overcoming resistance to change in digital library projects. OCLC Systems & Services, 27(2), 95-98.

Dervitsiotis  (1998). The challenge of managing organizational change: Exploring the relationship of re-engineering. Total Quality Management, 9(1), 109-122.

French (2013). Training for Change: Saving Lives on the Front End. Fire Engineering, 166(4), 135-138.

Martinčič (2010). Change Management in Adult Educational Organizations: A Slovenian Case Study. Managing Global Transitions: International Research Journal, 8(1), 79-96.

Mullins (2010) Management & Organisational Behaviour (9th ed). London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Phillips (1983). “Enhancing the effectiveness of organizational change management”. Human Resource Management 22 (1–2): 183–99.

Shao, Ying and Shao (2012). The impact of cognitive flexibility on resistance to organizational change. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 40(5), 735-745.

Shere (2006). Managing Cultural Changes in Your Organization. Crosstalk: The Journal Of Defense Software Engineering, 19(4), 9-13.

 

Theme 2

 

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Theme 2 – Most effective leadership style to managing the work of subordinates

Management and Leadership

Leadership is the way of affecting people to recognize and accept about what necessitates the need to achieve and how to prepare it (Yukl, 2012). In addition, leadership is also the way of developing individual and organization efforts to achieve assigned objectives (Yukl, 2012). Management is making work achieved through the efforts of various people (Mullins, 2013). The similarities and differences between management and leadership according to Buckingham (2005) illustrate that great leaders realize that which is common and use to it. Their task is getting the members going to a good prospect. The managers are to change members’ unique expertise into performance.

Let’s go back to the questions “Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? “and “What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates?” This blog will discuss these two questions through two models, The Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid and McGregor’s XY Theory.

The Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid model emphasizes the greatest leadership style to performance, according to the attention of people and tasks (Hersey and Blanchard, 1982).

People-oriented leadership style. Managers, focus on creating, sustaining, and promoting the team members. This participatory style fosters effective group work and innovative collaboration (Mind Tools, nd).

Task/Production-oriented leadership style. Managers, focus on fishing the business. Manager presents the tasks and the roles needed, set arrangements in position, and plan, coordinate, and control performance (Mind Tools, nd).

Base on the plan, the greatest leadership style to adopt is paying attention to both sides, rather than attempting to offset one against another.

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In the case that written by Marcus Buckingham (2005), illustrating that a great manager understands and appreciate the unparalleled strengths and also the peculiarities of their subordinates, and they determine how beneficial to combine them into a coordinated program of intervention. For instance, Michelle is a smartly great manager when she works out the situation with her employee Jeffrey. She knows that how to use the unique strength of the employees, focusing on it and developing the personal advantages. The result is notable; Michelle noticed both increases in sales, profit and achieves the most demanding fulfillment metric, customer satisfaction. In the following several months, her store made excellent records in Walgreens’ mystery shopper program. Michelle not only focuses on the task- oriented but also the people- oriented.

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The other academic theory is McGregor’s XY Theory. McGregor’s XY Theory shows in what way a manager’s perceptions of what drives the team members influences the direction he or she performs (Kopelman, Prottas and Davis, 2008). Through recognizing how the opinions about subordinates’ motivation can affect the management style, manager can modify the method properly in order to manage people more efficiently (Kopelman,Prottas and Davis, 2008).

The management style is completely affected by the views and assumptions from the factors that drive members of the group. For example, if the team members avoid their work and responsibilities, the managers are going to choose an authoritarian style of management. However, if the members done a good job, managers will assume a more participative style.

Theory X shows that employees are typically unmotivated and dislikes work (Mind Tools, nd), and this boosts the authoritarian style of management. This lead to the management need actively occur to make work finished, and managers need at each step to managing workers. However, Theory Y presents a participative style of management that is dispersible. It indicates that members are taking responsibility and are motivated to accomplish the purposes of the industry, self-motivated and productive, and enjoy the work with comprehensive responsibility (Mind Tools, nd). This participative management style is broadly accepted. For instance, GOOGLE illustrates the theory Y very well; the innovation and creativity of the company can flourish (Jensen, 2011). This allows their employees deal with issues efficiently and the reason is stimulated ideas for the management of the organization. When employees undergo the freedom for innovation and creativity that because of participative management, it assists to build a motivating atmosphere.

To sum up, the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates is by using relative management style depends on different members and situations. Like Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid emphasis the way of management style, people-oriented and the task-oriented. McGregor’s XY Theory also illustrate that the management style base on the personalities of employees, participative style or authoritarian style.

Reference List

Buckingham (2005). What Great Managers Do [Online] available at

http://hbr.org/2005/03/what-great-managers-do/ar/1[20th March 2014]

 

Hersey and Blanchard (1982). Leadership style: Attitudes and Behaviors. Training and Development Journal. 36 (5), 50-52.

 

Jensen (2011). Motivating Employees With Participative Management [Online] available at

http://www.andrewjensen.net/motivating-employees-with-participative-management [20th March 2014]

 

Mind Tools (nd). Theory X and Theory Y, Understanding Team Member Motivation [Online] available at http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm [19th Mar 2014]

 

Mullins (2013). Management and Organisational Behaviour. 10th ed. United Kingdom: FT Publishing International

 

Yukl (2012). Leadership in Organizations. 8th ed. United Kingdom: Prentice Hall

 

 

Theme 1

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Theme 1 – Diverse teams produce better results

Diversity Team and Organisational Culture

Diversity is an essential aspect of the contemporary societies; management effectively in an organization will improve the profitability of the organization. For example, the social media presents managers with an opportunity to meet and interact with people from diverse cultures. Facebook, for example, people exchange ideas and methods of work out problems through providing the managers with an opportunity to select the best ways of solving the situations. However, as mentioned above diversity requires efficient management in order to improve the productivity of an organization (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). Diversity creates a unique organization involved of people from different cultural backgrounds working together for the same goals. Effective management skills in order to help the integration process that create a cohesive working environment as described below.

Social Media Logotype Background

Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter provide manager with a platform to interact with people from different backgrounds. The technologies facilitate enhanced communication through allowing the managers to obtain ideas from different people immediately. Therefore, the manager needs to present sufficient management skills which will include interpersonal skills in order to achieve integration at the workplace. With effective management skills, the managers develop a suitable culture at the organization. Organizational cultures need always consider the diversity of the employees. For example, such a culture makes all the employees overcome retrogressive features of their cultures and encourage them to adopt relevant features of the organizational culture that safeguards the profitability of the organization. The managers need to develop effective communication channels at the organization that the employees readily exchange their ideas thereby developing a culture of improved consultations both among themselves and with their managers. This makes production among other operations at the organization cost effective since they minimize errors thereby facilitating increased productivity (Thomas, 2009).

An organizational culture is a vital management tool that helps determine the conduciveness of the workplace. This refers to the values the managers instil in their workforce in order to safeguard the production at the organization. After recruiting employees from diverse cultures, the managers must find a way of unifying their diversity through a single culture at the organization. However, in developing an organizational culture, the management must ascribe to specific values that safeguard the productivity at the organization (Müller, 2010). The culture adopted by the organization must promote official communication between the employees and the management. In addition, the organizational culture needs to allow space for informal groupings at the organization. Through such groupings, employees share the issues that affect their productivity thereby proving the management with an opportunity to evaluate the effects of every policy they either formulate or implement at the organisation.

Communication is an equally essential feature in organisational cultures. A culture adopted by the Organisation must encourage the free exchange from the employees and the top management. This means that the management needs to develop efficient channels of communication at the organisation in order to encourage the employees to represent themselves. Furthermore, the advantages of diversity are that it presents multiple solutions to the problems at the organization. Customers and employees in the organization have a solution for the problems at the organization. Therefore, the management needs to develop efficient tools of getting the thoughts and ideas of the several employees. For instance, when employees feel not good in the formulation of policies that influence them at the organization, they begin feeling unappreciated and are likely to become disobedient to the management. In other word, attitudes result in industrial conflict since they exhibit the inability of the management to harmonize the diversity at the organization (Homburg, Sabine and Harley, 2009).

Managers use their knowledge of diversity to improve productivity in the organization. Human resource is the primary resource in any organization. Motivation of employees becomes necessary in the promotion of productivity at the organization. Managers can only motivate their employees effectively if they understand the diversity the employees possess. By understanding the diversity the employees possess, the management becomes capable of designing compensation packages and effective interactions with their respective employees. In this way, they become appreciative of every employee through sustaining the productivity and effectiveness of the organization (Fargus, 2000). The knowledge of diversity presents various cost effective solutions to solving the daily operational problems at the organization. Therefore, the managers need to interact effectively with the employees and encourage their output that develop realistic solutions to the problems the employees face. This motivates the employees improving their productivity.

To sum up, diversity is a necessary aspect of the contemporary society following from the features of both urbanization and globalization. Managers recognize the diversities at the organization and apply to improve the productivity. The management needs to determine ways of motivating their employees in a bid to facilitate efficiency of service delivery (Painter, 2012). With effective knowledge of diversity, the management develops effective organizational cultures that will motivate every employee in the organization through improving productivity.

 

References List

Fargus, P. (2000) Measuring and improving employee motivation. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Homburg, C., Sabine, K., and Harley, K. (2009). Marketing Management – A Contemporary  Perspective .New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons

Müller, C. (2010). Employee motivation an incentives at Apple: Do incentives really help to motivate employees?. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag.

Painter, R. et all. (2012). Cases and Materials on Employment law, Oxford,Oxford University Press.

Pickton, D. and  Broderick, A. (2005). Integrated Marketing Communications.London: FT Pearson.

Thomas, K. W. (2009). Intrinsic motivation at work: What really drives employee engagement.San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.